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Notes: had to retreat - Методическое пособие по страноведению. Волгодонск: Издательство виэу и п юфу, 2010. 112с....



Карта сайта zza444.com Notes: had to retreat — были вынуждены отступить to guard the western border of the British empire in America — охранять западную границы британских владений в Америке The undeclared war — Необъявленная война a full-scale invasion — полномасштабное вторжение simultaneously — одновременно troops were dispersed over a large territory — войска были разбросаны по большой территории stronghold — оплот, твердыня, опорный пункт They would have fallen one by one. — Они пали бы один за другим William Pitt — Уильям Питт (1708-1778), английский премьер-министр. war effort — военные усилия substituted incompetent generals by capable young officers — заменил некомпетентных генералов способными молодыми офицерами strengthened the navy — укрепил флот to dispatch — отправлять EXERCISES 1. Переведите на русский язык: The easy victory, the British colonial settlements, appointed a commander of the Virginia militia, the undeclared war of, his own plan of the military campaign in America, the British empire in America. 2. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие следующие словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык: Militia was formed, he had only three hundred men, the undeclared war of 1754-55, at Quebec and Montreal, troubled by a series of defeats. 3. Составьте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями: Victory, settlements, British empire, simultaneously, a large territory, to capture these strongholds, political and military conflict. 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:

  • What did the undeclared war of 1754-55 merge into?
  • When was a full-scale invasion of Canada started?
  • What did William Pitt do?
  • Who was chosen to lead the British military expedition against Quebec? JAMES WOLFE'S VICTORY James Wolfe was an experienced general. His father, who had been a British general too, bought him an officer's commission at the age of fourteen. For next eighteen years James Wolfe was seldom away from action. In 1759 General Wolfe took his expedition up the St. Lawrence River to destroy Quebec. But Quebec was well defended by the French. The British had been besieging Quebec for three months before General Wolfe found a way to attack it. In the middle of the night Wolfe's troops landed above the city and climbed up steep cliffs known as the Heights of Abraham. In the morning the French were astonished to see 4,500 redcoats on the Plains of Abraham above the city, cutting them off from their supplies. The fierce battle was won by the British. The French were defeated, and Quebec surrendered. General Wolfe fell mortally wounded and died on the field. He had already known his soldiers had won a decisive victory. A year later, in 1760, Montreal fell. During the next three years French power was thrown off the continent of the North America. In 1763 all French Canada and the land east to the Mississippi River were given to Britain. France was allowed to retain only a small group of tiny islands in the West Indies to grow sugar, and two islets in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. After that the French ceded all trans-Mississippi Louisiana and New Orleans to Spain. For its part, Spain gave Florida to Britain in exchange for Cuba, where Havana had fallen to the British. The victory in the French and Indian War made Britain the dominant power in North America. Notes: James Wolfe - Джеймс Вулф (1727-1759) officer's commission — патент на офицерское звание was seldom away from action — редко оказывался не у дел The British had been besieging Quebec for three months before General Wolfe found a way to attack it. — Британцы держали Квебек в осаде три месяца, прежде чем генерал Вулф придумал, как взять его штурмом climbed up steep cliffs — вскарабкались на крутые скалы redcoats — буквально — красные мундиры, прозвище британских солдат France was allowed to retain only a small group of tiny islands — Франции было позволено сохранить за собой лишь маленькую группу крохотных островов where Havana had fallen to the British — где Гавана пе­решла к британцам EXERCISES 1. Переведите на русский язык: An experienced general, his expedition up the St. Lawrence River, to destroy Quebec, Wolfe's troops landed above the city and climbed up steep cliffs, a small group of tiny islands, an officer's commission at the age of fourteen. 2. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие следующие словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык: In 1759 General Wolfe, in the middle of the night, in the morning the French, the fierce battle, during the next three years, all trans-Mississippi Louisiana, in the French and Indian War. 3. Составьте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями: For three months, officer's commission, climbed up steep cliffs, his soldiers, the fierce battle, the dominant power. 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
  • Was James Wolfe an experienced general?
  • Did Wolfe find a way to attack Quebec at once?
  • In what way did the British attack Quebec?
  • How did Wolfe die?
  • When did Montreal fall?
  • What happened in 1763?
  • How did Britain get Florida?
  • Why was the victory in the French and Indian war so important to the British? BRITAIN MAKES THE COLONISTS PAY FOR THE WAR The French and Indian War left Britain with an expanded empire, but all the same it was very costly for the country. Britain was in need of money, and Parliament decided to make the colonists pay for the war. The control over the colonies was restricted, and new taxes and duties on imports were introduced. The colonial policy was named mercantilism. According to the mercantilism doctrine the colonies existed only for the benefit of the mother country. To benefit Britain the American colonies were to furnish ships and sailors, to grow products that otherwise would have to be brought from foreign countries. They were also to buy goods manufactured in Britain to promote British industry. But the colonists did not want to pay new taxes. Each British colony had an elected assembly that made laws and represented the colony's interest in its dealing with the mother country. At the same time no Americans were seated in the British parliament. The colonists did not want to obey any laws imposed on them without their consent. They decided to pay only those taxes that would be set by the colonial assemblies. The colonists protested against the new economic policy in different ways. They often refused to buy goods imported to America by Britain. Some American merchants became smugglers and brought in goods without paying import duties. Notes: new taxes and duties on imports were introduced — были введены новые налоги и пошлины на ввозимые товары mercantilism — меркантилизм the colonies existed only for the benefit of the mother country — колонии существовали только для того, чтобы приносить выгоду метрополии that otherwise would have to be brought from foreign countries — которые в противном случае пришлось бы по­купать у иностранных государств goods manufactured in Britain — товары, произведенные в Британии to promote British industry — способствовать развитию британской промышленности an elected assembly — выборное собрание in dealing with the mother country — в торговле с метро­полией imposed on them without their consent — навязанные им без их согласия smuggler — контрабандист import duties — пошлины на ввоз импортных товаров EXERCISES 1. Переведите на русский язык: An expanded empire, but all the same, new taxes and duties on imports, the colonial policy, to grow products, according to the mercantilism doctrine, very costly for the country. 2. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие следующие словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык: The French and Indian War, Parliament decided, each British colony, at the same time, the new economic policy, the colonial assemblies. 3. Составьте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями: To benefit Britain, the colonists, to pay, new taxes, without paying import duties. 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
  • Why was Britain in need of money?
  • Who was to pay for the war?
  • What was the essence of mercantilism doctrine?
  • Did the colonists agree to pay new taxes?
  • How did they protest against the new policy? ACTS ON TAXES All the laws meant to raise money from the colonies were met with great indignation in America. But the Americans were too far off, and Parliament did not pay attention to their emotions. In 1763 the Navigation Laws were introduced. They stated that the goods were to be brought to and from the colonies only by the British ships. Thus the colonists were deprived of the choice between the Dutch and British shippers. In addition, all the goods from Europe consigned to America were to be landed first in England. That was introduced to make the colonists pay customs duties twice, first in England, and then in America. Naturally, the Americans wildly protested against that double taxation. In 1764 the Sugar Act was issued for raising duties on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies. It caused great agitation in the colonies, and it calmed down only when the duties were lowered. Two more parliamentary acts on taxes followed. The Quartering Act of 1765 made the colonies provide quarters and food for the British army in America. The Stamp Act issued the same year was also passed as a means of raising revenue in the colonies. It required the purchase of stamps for all official documents and printed production. People were forced to use stamped paper for notes, bills, deeds, contracts and similar things. The colonists tried to make King George III repeal the acts. They were particularly active in opposing the stamp tax. The most conspicious assemblage took place in New York. Twenty-seven delegates from nine colonies drew up a document asking the king and Parliament to repeal the hated stamp tax. That meeting became known as the Stamp Act Congress of 1765. On the eve of the Stamp Act imposition all the stamp agents were forced to resign. Many of them were attacked by angry mobs threatening to destroy their property, or even murder them. Stamps could not be sold in America, as there was nobody to sell them. Britain tried to ignore the protests, but in 1766 Parliament had to repeal the hated Stamp Act. The Stamp Act was repealed on March 4, 1766. The repeal was accompanied by the Declaratory Act, which stated the right of the British government to issue laws for the colonists to follow. The Stamp Act was one of the chief causes of the American Revolution. Notes: All the laws meant to raise money from the colonies were met with great indignation in America. — Все законы, предназ­наченные для того, чтобы взымать деньги с жителей коло­ний, были встречены в Америке с великим негодованием the Navigation Laws were introduced — были введены За­коны о судоходстве to state — гласить were deprived of the choice — были лишены выбора all the goods from Europe consigned to America were to be landed first in England — все товары из Европы, предназна­ченные для Америки, должны были выгружаться сперва в Англии to make the colonists pay customs duties twice — заста­вить колонистов дважды платить таможенную пошлину double taxation — двойное налогообложение agitation — волнение to calm down — успокоиться, затихнуть The Stamp Act issued the same year — Изданный в том же году Акт о гербовом сборе a means of raising revenue in the colonies — способ из­влечения доходов из колоний George III — Георг III (1738—1820), английский король The most conspicious assemblage took place in New York. — Самое значительное собрание имело место в Нью-Йорке mobs threatening to destroy their property — толпы, уг­рожающие причинить урон их собственности to repeal the hated Stamp Act — отменить ненавистный Акт о гербовом сборе the Declaratory Act — Акт о верховенстве EXERCISES 1. Переведите на русский язык: To raise money from the colonies, from the colonies only by the British ships, the colonists pay customs duties twice, first in England, with great indignation in America. 2. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие следующие словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык: In 1764 the Sugar Act, the Quartering Act of, all official documents, King George III, twenty-seven delegates, the Stamp Act Congress of. 3. Составьте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями: On the eve, all the stamp agents, to destroy, to ignore, to issue laws, to sell them. 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
  • What did the Navigation Laws introduced in 1763 state?
  • Why did they cause wild protests in America?
  • What act was issued in 1764?
  • What acts followed in 1765?
  • How did the colonists protest against the Stamp Act?
  • When was the Stamp Act repealed?
  • Why was the Stamp Act one of the chief causes of the American revolution? THE YOUTH OF BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Benjamin Franklin was born on Milk Street in Boston. His parents were poor, but brought up a family of seventeen children. Benjamin was the tenth son in the family. His father, Josiah, earned a living by making soap and candles. Josiah wanted Benjamin to become a minister and enrolled him in Boston Grammar School. Josiah's plans turned out to be too ambitious. Benjamin had to leave school and work for his father. In those days even little children helped to support the family. Working in his father's shop, Benjamin had to cut the wicks for candles as well as fill the moulds with hot tallow. The work he did was very monotonous. Poor Benjamin began to dream about running away from home. He used to say he hated his father's business and often threatened to run away to sea. It was quite a natural desire. When a boy, Benjamin was fond of swimming and managing boats. Like many boys, he wanted to be a sailor. His father told him he would never do for a sailor. Somehow he managed to persuade Benjamin to think about another job. At the age of twelve Benjamin was apprenticed to his brother James, a printer. For a time Benjamin was happy. He loved books and reading, and was glad to learn the printer's trade. James Franklin printed a newspaper called the "New England Courant". Benjamin saw many people coming to James and bringing him articles for his newspaper. He wanted to write an article himself. Soon he began to write some pieces for it. He did not want James to know about it. The elder brother would laugh at him. So Benjamin decided not to sign his articles. He used to slip them at night under the door of the office. He was very glad to see them published in the newspaper. Notes: Benjamin Franklin — Бенджамин Франклин (1706—1790) earned a living by making soap and candles — зарабаты­вал на жизнь изготовлением мыла и свечей minister — священнослужитель enrolled him in Boston Grammar School — определил его в Бостонскую классическую школу to support the family — содержать семью to cut the wicks for candles — нарезать фитили для свечей to fill the moulds with hot tallow — наполнять формы горячим салом (речь идет об изготовлении сальных свечей) Benjamin was apprenticed to his brother James, a printer — Бенджамин стал учеником у своего брата Джеймса, печатника the printer's trade — ремесло печатника "New England Courant" — "Газета Новой Англии" articles for his newspaper — статьи для его газеты to sign — подписывать to slip — незаметно подсовывать EXERCISES 1. Переведите на русский язык: Josiah's plans, had to leave school and work for his father, to support the family, the tenth son in the family, a family of seventeen children. 2. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие следующие словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык: Working in his father's shop, poor Benjamin, Benjamin was fond of swimming, to learn the printer's trade. 3. Составьте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями: Earned a living, soap and candles, printed a newspaper, many people, to write some pieces, to know about it. 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
  • Where was Benjamin Franklin born?
  • Why did he leave school?
  • Where did he begin to work?
  • Did he run away from home?
  • How did he become a printer?
  • How were his first articles published? FRANKLIN MAKES HIS WAY IN THE WORLD Unfortunately, the brothers did not get along well together. James often abused Benjamin, and in 1723 the young apprentice broke with his master and ran away to Philadelphia. At the age of seventeen, with little money in his pocket but already an expert printer, Benjamin Franklin proceeded to make his way in the world. He worked hard and studied hard. He taught himself French, Spanish, Italian and Latin. He was never idle, and spent his spare moments in study and reading. In 1724 he went to England and came back to America in 1726. In 1729, when he was twenty-three years old, he became a sole owner of a printing shop and began to publish a newspaper of his own, called the "Pennsylvania Gazette". In 1732 it was followed by his famous annual, the "Poor Richard's Almanac". His wife Deborah Read, who he had married in 1730, was his good and faithful helpmate and assisted him much in his business. Benjamin Franklin lived to a good old age, and served his country in many ways. Before he retired from business at the age of forty-two, Franklin had founded a library, invented a stove, subscribed to an academy that was to become the University of Pennsylvania, and served as secretary to the American Philosophical Society. Notes: the brothers did not get along well together — братья не ладили между собой to abuse — плохо обращаться an expert printer — опытный печатник a sole owner of a printing shop — единоличный владе­лец печатной мастерской famous annual, the "Poor Richard's Almanac" — знаме­нитый календарь, "Альманах простака Ричарда" faithful helpmate — преданная помощница lived to a good old age — дожил до преклонного возраста to retire from business — удалиться от дел the American Philosophical Society — Американское фи­лософское общество EXERCISES 1. Переведите на русский язык: Unfortunately, the young apprentice, at the age of seventeen, with little money in his pocket, to publish a newspaper of his own, to make his way in the world. 2. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие следующие словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык: And in 1723 the young apprentice, Benjamin Franklin proceeded to make, his wife Deborah Read, served his country in many way, the University of Pennsylvania. 3. Составьте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями: … worked hard, studied hard, …spent his spare moments, study and reading, a sole owner, good and faithful helpmate. 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
  • Why did Franklin run away to Philadelphia?
  • What languages did he learn?
  • When did he become a sole owner of a printing shop?
  • What did he publish?
  • In what ways did Franklin serve his country?
  • Learn Franklin's favourite proverbs by heart and try to find their Russian equivalents. COMPETENT SCIENTIST AND DIPLOMAT In addition to all his other accomplishments Benjamin Franklin was a competent scientist. He marvelled at the newly invented Leyden Jar and was among the first to realize that it could store electricity. The natural phenomenon, lightning, also interested him deeply. Franklin was the first to prove that lightning was just a gigantic electrical spark. In November 1749, he drew up a list showing twelve ways in which lightning and electricity were similar. Then he invented a way "of drawing the electric fire from the clouds by means of pointed rods of iron erected on high buildings" and a lightning rod for that. In June 1752, he risked his life and that of his son William, who helped him, to prove that lightning is an electrical discharge. They made a kite of silk on a cedar frame tipped with metal wire. Standing in a doorway, they flew it in a thunderstorm. A silk ribbon was attached to the lower end of a silken kite-string. Franklin held a dry portion of the silk ribbon. A metal key was suspended from the kite-string above the ribbon. Below the key was a Leyden Jar. At first nothing happened, but as the kite-string got wet from the rain, electricity began to flow. Sparks jumped between the key and the Leyden Jar. The electric current hadn't been able to travel along the kite-string till it got wet. Dry silk is a non­conductor, but wet silk, like metal, is a good conductor of electricity. Franklin's observations on electricity were published in London in 1751 and brought him the applause of British scientists. He gave the study of electricity a boost. In the hundred years after he flew his kite, Coulomb, Ampere, Ohm and Volta all made important discoveries. As printer, journalist, scientist, philosopher and statesman, Benjamin Franklin was one of the most prominent men of his age. Having retired from business, Franklin became a diplomat. He was a born diplomat, and spent nearly twenty years abroad. In 1757-1763 he represented American colonies in England. He was one of the first to notice the impossibility of compromise between the colonies and their mother country. Franklin's favourite proverbs published in his "POOR RICHARD'S ALMANAC" One day is worth two tomorrows. Constant dropping wears away stones. Early to bed, and early to rise, Makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. The sleeping fox catches no poultry. No morning sun lasts a whole day. God helps them that help themselves. Lost time is never found again. Little strokes fell great oaks. Creditors have better memories than debtors. Notes: accomplishments — достоинства a competent scientist — настоящий ученый He marvelled at the newly invented Leyden Jar and was among the first to realize that it could store electricity. — Он был восхищен недавно изобретенной лейденской банкой и одним из первых догадался, что она может накапливать электричество similar — подобный pointed rods of iron erected on high buildings — заостренные железные стержни, установленные на высоких зданиях lightning rod — громоотвод an electrical discharge — электрический разряд cedar — кедр kite-string — бечевка для пускания змея to be suspended — быть подвешенным, свисать electric current — электрический ток non-conductor — не проводящий электричество материал applause — восхищение, похвалы to give a boost — дать толчок, придать ускорение Coulomb, Ampere, Ohm and Volta — Кулон, Ампер, Ом и Вольта a born diplomat — прирожденный дипломат Не was one of the first to notice the impossibility of compromise — Он был одним из первых, кто заметил невоз­можность компромисса EXERCISES 1. Переведите на русский язык: In addition, the newly invented, a competent scientist, a gigantic electrical spark, a lightning rod, a silken kite-string, also interested him deeply. 2. Выпишите из текста предложения, содержащие следующие словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык: In June 1752, a metal key, to travel along, as printer, journalist, a diplomat. 3. Составьте предложения со следующими словами и словосочетаниями: Accomplishments, a list, electric current, non-conductor, applause, to give a boost. 4. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
  • What experiment did Benjamin Franklin set?
  • What did he invent?
  • Why did he risk his life in June 1752?
  • Were Franklin's observations on electricity important?
  • What did Franklin do in 1757-1763? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8


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